Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kow Multiply by To find
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
  1.1 short tons
  2,204 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Population and Annual Growth Rates, Census Years 1911-80

Census Year Population Years Covered Average Annual Growth Rate (in percentage)
1911 336,742 n.a. n.a.
1920 446,098 1911-20 3.17
1930 467,459 1920-30 0.47
1940 622,576 1930-40 2.76
1950 805,285 1940-50 2.56
1960 1,075,541 1950-60 2.94
1970 1,428,082 1960-70 3.06
1980 1,831,399 1970-80 2.52

n.a.--not applicable.

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 38-39.

Table 3. Annual Population Growth Rates, by Province, 1970-80

Province Annual Growth Rate (in percentage)
Bocas del Toro 3.07
Coclé 1.78
Colón 2.11
Chiriquí 2.37
Darién 2.17
Herrera 1.74
Los Santos 0.48
Panamß 3.49
Veraguas 1.63

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Estadística Panameña, No. 970, Panama City, March 1985, 6-7.

Table 4. Indigenous Population, by Province or Territory, 19801

Province or Territory Total Indigenous Population Percent Indigenous
Bocas del Toro . 53,487 17,468 33.00
Chiriquí 287,350 30,862 11.00
Comarca de San Blas . 28,621 27,588 96.00
Darién 26,524 8,924 34.00
Panamß 831,048 2,294 0.30
Veraguas 173,245 5,955 3.00
PANAMA2 1,831,399 93,091 5.00

1 Provinces of Colón, Coclé, Los Santos, and Herrera do not contain significant numbers of Indians, and statistics were not available for those provinces.
2 Total is for all nine provinces and the Comarca de San Blas.

Source:Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 48-49.

Table 5. Illiteracy Rates for Population over Ten Years of Age, by Sex, 1970 and 1980

  1970 1980
Male 101,931 84,515
Female 101,351 89,610
TOTAL 203,282 174,125
Percentage of Total Population 21 13

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 252.

Table 6. Educational Enrollment, Selected Years, 1950-83

  1950 1960 1970 1975 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
Preprimary n.a. n.a. n.a. 18,677 18,136 22,616 24,656 25,8 43 25,843
Primary. 110,059 161,800 255,287 325,394 373,823 337,522 335,239 336,740 335,950
Secondary1 17,519 38,964 78,466 125,745 137,816 171,273 174,078 174,791 176,916
Postsecondary 1,519 4,030 8,159 22,581 38,865 41,311 43,964 47,592 47,131
Other2 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 13,085 14,458 9,905 12,611 8,653
TOTAL 129,097 204,794 341,912 473,720 582,266 582,700 585,802 596,390 594,493

n.a.--not available.
1 Includes both technical and academic programs.
2 Includes special education and vocational courses of less than three years.

Sources:Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1973-1977, Panama City, November 1978, 176-80; and Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 261-62.

Table 7. Education Budgets, 1979-84

  Ministry of Education   University of Panama
  Amount of Total Budget* Percentage Amount of Total Budget* Percentage
1979 85,037 18.4 16,681 3.6
1980 110,913 15.3 17,332 2.4
1981 120,153 15.2 21,455 2.7
1982 133,862 12.1 22,801 2.1
1983 145,927 12.7 26,665 2.3
1984 217,840 18.3 32,294 2.7

*In thousands of balboas; for value of the balboa--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 266.

Table 8. Government Spending for Education, by Level of Instruction, 1979-83

(in thousands of balboas)*
  1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
Primary 63,441 74,254 70,760 68,502 74,605
Secondary 32,177 33,644 37,441 47,161 48,525
University 19,769 24,316 31,897 41,105 43,442
Adult education 866 126 1,523 1,161 845
Other 39,394 49,773 53,412 56,238 61,708
TOTAL 155,647 182,113 195,033 214,167 229,125

*For value of the balboa--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 268.

Table 9. Schools, Classrooms, and Teachers, Selected Years, 1950-83

Year Primary Secondary Postsecond ary
1950
Schools 950 78 1
Classrooms n.a. n.a. n.a.
Teachers 3,415 959 n.a.
1960
Schools 1,298 127 2
Classrooms n.a. n.a. n.a.
Teachers 5,309 1,704 191
1970
Schools 1,784 192 2
Classrooms n.a. n.a. n.a.
Teachers 1,784 3,784 448
1975
Schools 2,171 209 2
Classrooms n.a. n.a. n.a.
Teachers 10,685 5,670 869
1980
Schools 2,306 301 2
Classrooms 11,280 3,763 318
Teachers 12,361 8,138 1,310
1981
Schools 2,316 307 2
Classrooms 11,508 3,947 370
Year Primary Secondary Postsecondary
Teachers 12,393 8,610 1,586
1982
Schools 2,347 313 3
Classrooms 11,726 3,973 451
Teachers 12,853 8,928 1,705
1983
Schools 2,376 321 3
Classrooms 11,289 4,011 506
Teachers 12,613 9,249 1,766

n.a.--not available

Sources: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1973-1977, Panama City, November 1978, 176-80; and Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 256-59.

Table 10. Life Expectancy at Birth, by Sex, 1965 and 1985

  1965 1985
Male 62 69
Female 64 73

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 76; and World Bank, World Development Report 1986, New York, 1986, 233.

Table 11. Medical Facilities, by Location, 1983

  Hospitals Medical Centers Local Clinics
Cities
Panama City 12 20 n.a.
Colón 2 5 n.a.
Provinces
Bocas del Toro 3 4 56
Chiriquí 6 31 98
Coclé 3 17 46
Colón 3 17 47
Darién 3 5 32
Herrera 5 11 23
Los Santos 4 11 14
Panamß 16 53 63
Veraguas 3 17 51
Indigenous Territory
Comarca de San Blas 4 4 13

n.a.--not available

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census. Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 221.

Table 12. Medical Personnel and Facilities, per 10,000 Inhabitants, by Location, 1983

  Hospital Beds Doctors Nurses
Cities
Panama City 91 21.8 28.1
Colón 48 12.5 15.4
Provinces
Bocas del Toro 31 4.1 6.5
Chiriquí 25 6.1 5.9
Coclé 24 4.4 4.1
Colón 24 8.2 8.3
Darién 25 3.6 3.2
Herrera 42 5.6 5.6
Los Santos 67 6.1 6.1
Panamß 45 13.9 14.4
Veraguas 17 2.6 3.2
Indigenous Territory
Comarca de San Blas 22 2.3 1.1
PANAMA 36 9.0 9.4

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 223-26.

Table 13. Birth and Death Rates, 1979-83

per 1,000 Inhabitants
  1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
Live Births
Urban 26.1 25.5 25.1 25.9 25.7
Rural 30.2 28.9 28.9 27.4 26.6
Panama 28.2 27.2 27.0 26.7 26.2
Mortality
All deaths
Urban 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.4
Rural 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.8
Panama 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.1
Infant*
Urban 21.5 19.4 19.7 17.1 18.8
Rural 27.7 23.9 24.7 22.6 22.1
Panama 24.6 21.7 22.2 19.9 20.5
Maternal
Urban 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.2
Rural 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.2 1.0
Panama 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.6

* Aged less than one year.

Source: Based on information from Panama, Directorate of Statistics and Census, Panamß en Cifras: Años 1979-1983, Panama City, November 1984, 61.

Table 14. Central Government Budgets, 1981-85

(in millions of balboas)
  1981 1982 1983 1984 19852
Consolidated public sector
Revenues 1,169.0 1,264.5 1,385.5 1,424.6 1,531.8
Expenditures 1,383.7 1,726.5 1,650.2 1,699.0 1,654.8
Balance -214.7 -462.0 -264.7 -274.4 -123.0
Unconsolidated public-sector
balance3 6.6 -2.0 17.4 8.0 12.0
Total public-sector borrowing requirement 208.1 464.0 247.3 266.4 121.0
As percentage of GDP4 5.4 10.8 5.7 5.8 2.5

1 For value of the balboa (One Balboa is equal to One US Dollar)
2 Estimate.
3 To which no transfers are made.
4 GDP--gross domestic product

Source: Based on unpublished data provided by Controloría General de la República de Panamß, 1987.

Table 15. Distribution of Labor Force by Sector, Selected Years, 1965-85

(in percentage)
Sector 1965 1973 1980 198 5
Agriculture 46.3 38.6 31.8 26.5
Industry 15.8 17.8 18.1 16.1
Services 37.9 43.6 50.1 57.4
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on unpublished data provided by Controloría General de la República de Panamß, 1987.

Table 16. External Trade, 1980-85

(in millions of United States dollars at current prices)
  1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 19851
Exports
Bananas 61.6 69.2 66.0 75.0 74.7 78.1
Petroleum 233.3 209.1 166.6 131.2 134.4 100.6
Shrimp 43.7 42.7 52.9 51.4 46.7 53.4
Sugar 65.8 52.6 23.7 41.3 42.6 33.3
Manufactures. 31.5 31.4 38.7 29.3 34.5 45.0
Other 90.2 88.9 140.9 109.9 94.0 104.1
Total exports f.o.b.2 526.1 493.9 488.8 438.1 426.9 414.5
Imports
Food 123.0 115.4 124.1 130.0 127.8 142.6
POL3 and other energy sources 424.4 426.1 408.6 384.0 350.2 271.8
Other consumer goods 162.5 195.0 203.2 196.5 206.9 197.8
Other intermediate goods 373.4 413.6 404.5 360.6 392.8 439.7
Capital goods 258.7 319.8 355.6 280.8 264.4 288.2
Total imports c.i.f. 1,342.0 1,469.9 1,496.0 1,351.9 1,342.1 1,340.1

1 Preliminary.
2 f.o.b--free on board.
3 POL--Petroleum, oil and lubricants.
4 c.i.f--Cost, insurance and freight.

Source: Based on unpublished data provided by the Controloría General de la República de Panamß, 1987.

Table 17. Balance of Payments, 1980-85

(in millions of United States dollars at current prices)
  1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985*
Exports of goods and non-factor services(NFS) and NFS 1,644.6 1,734.3 1,769.3 1,774.4 1,742.4 1,819.6
Imports of goods -1,697.6 -1,854.6 -1,870.5 -1,697.0 -1,679.7 - 1,705.3
Resource balance -53.0 -120.3 -101.2 77.4 62.7 114.3
Net factor income -283.0 -271.2 -349.8 -324.2 -375.8 -370.2
Net current transfers 14.4 31.2 45.6 44.3 89.6 83.3
CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE -321.6 -360.3 -405.4 -202.5 -223.5 - 172.6
Capital
Long-term capital inflow 131.6 402.0 492.1 386.0 250.4 130.6
Total other items (net). 186.1 -5.1 -85.4 -95.4 1.7 -24.9
Net short-term capital -90.4 37.7 -125.8 -177.5 -80.3 -229.1
CAPITAL ACCOUNT BALANCE 227.3 434.6 280.9 113.1 171.8 -123.4
Net errors and omissions -276.5 42.8 -40.4 -82.1 -67.6 -136.4
Change in net reserves 3.9 -36.6 -1.3 -88.1 -14.2 134.7

*Preliminary.

Source: Based on unpublished data provided by Controloría General de la República de Panamß, 1987.

Table 18. External Capital and Debt, 1980-85

(in millions of United States dollars at current prices)
  1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 19851
Public and publicly guaranteed external debt 2,283.4 2,441.3 2,926.7 3,146.5 3,229.7 3,275.6
Official creditors 581.2 682.2 830.5 1,006.0 1,078.9 1,144.3
Multilateral 327.5 358.8 432.3 558.3 660.4 741.0
Bilateral 253.7 323.4 398.2 447.7 418.5 403.3
Private creditors 1,702.2 1,759.1 2,096.2 2,140.5 2,150.8 2,131.3
Suppliers 35.7 29.2 29.1 27.1 50.1 42.5
Financial markets 1,666.5 1,729.9 2,067.1 2,113.4 2,100.7 2,088.8
IMF credit2 23.1 93.6 84.0 192.8 271.1 311.2
TOTAL EXTERNAL DEBT. 2,306.5 2,534.9 3,010.7 3,339.3 3,500.8 3,586.8
Percentage of total long-term debt on concessional terms 12.2 12.8 11.8 11.5 11.7 12.1
(with variable interest rates) 52.2 51.1 55.9 57.0 57.7 59.5

1 Estimate.
2 IMF--International Monetary Fund.

Source: Based on unpublished data provided by Controloría General de la República de Panamß, 1987.

Table 19. United States Military Aid and Sales to Panama, Fiscal Years 1980-86

(in thousands of United States dollars)
Fiscal Year FMS Deliveries 1 Commercial Arms Sales MAP 2 IMETP 3
1980 187 29,241 3 270
1981 154 752 n.a. 328
1982 360 1,000 1 359
1983 481 1,504 n.a. 466
1984 546 1,800 n.a. 453
1985 2,124 594 n.a. 575
1986 12,488 560 n.a. 507

n.a.--not available.
1 FMS--Foreign Military Sales.
2 MAP--Military Assistance Program.
3 IMETP--International Military Education and Training Program.

Source: Based on information from United States, Department of Defense, Security Assistance Agency, Foreign Military Sales, Foreign Military Construction Sales, and Military Assistance Facts, Washington, 1986.


From the Library of Congress Archives

Presented by CZBrats
November 18, 1998

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